A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
Scholars Debunk Cleopatra’s Death by Cobra
MANCHESTER, ENGLAND—Andrew Gray, Curator of Herpetology at Manchester Museum and Egyptologist Joyce Tyldesley of The University of Manchester argue in a video that it is unlikely that Cleopatra and her maids were killed by a venomous snake. According to Tyldesley, ancient accounts record that the snake hid in a basket of figs brought from the countryside. “Not only are cobras too big, but there’s just a ten percent chance you would die from a snake bite: most bites are dry bites that don’t inject venom,” Gray said in a press release. He adds that cobras tend to conserve their venom to protect themselves and for hunting. “That’s not to say they aren’t dangerous: the venom causes necrosis and will certainly kill you, but quite slowly.” Tyldesley explains that Cleopatra, like other kings and queens of Egypt, was associated with snakes, which the Egyptians thought of as good mothers. She also thought of herself as the embodiment of the goddess Isis, who could take a snake’s form. To read more about Egyptology, go to "The Cult of Amun."
Conservators Begin to Repair Tutankhamun’s Mask
CAIRO, EGYPT—A team of German and Egyptian experts is working together to repair the 3,300-year-old burial mask of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in a laboratory at the Egyptian Museum. A year ago, its beard was knocked off accidentally by a museum employee who was working on the museum’s lighting. The beard was then hastily reapplied with epoxy, which is non-soluble. The conservators are carefully scraping the epoxy off the mask with wooden sticks, and may need to warm up the glue to complete the job. They will reattach the beard after they have studied how it was originally joined to the mask. “We have some uncertainties now, we don’t know how deep the glue went inside the beard, and so we don’t know how long it will take to remove the beard,” Christian Eckmann, a lead specialist, told The Guardian. “We are using this chance to gain new information about the manufacture,” he added. For more, go to "Warrior Tut."
Tashtyk Crypt Excavated in Siberia
KEMEROVO, RUSSIA—A large fifth-century crypt containing the remains of as many as 30 people has been excavated in Siberia. The crypt, constructed as a large hole with a stone wall around it, had a log floor. Pavel German of the Institute of Human Ecology in Kemerovo says that in this burial, known as Shestakovo-3, the Tashtyk people placed dummies with bodies made of leather or fabric filled with the cremated remains of adults. A life-like gypsum mask of the deceased was then placed on the dummy. “Such gypsum masks are excellently preserved in a dry environment, in sandy soil, as for example in Khakassia. Here, in Kemerovo region, the soil is more wet, besides there are tree roots everywhere. It doesn’t help the preservation. We have here a lot of fragments, but we hope to restore them. For example we’ve got rather big fragment, half of one mask,” he told The Siberian Times. The skeletal remains of children were found buried near the walls of the crypt. “After the crypt was filled it was burned down. The wooden construction fell down and overlapped burials,” German said. To read more about Siberian archaeology, go to "Fortress of Solitude."
Hiker Discovers Viking Sword in Norway
HAUKELI, NORWAY—A hiker who sat down to rest discovered a 1,200-year-old Viking sword in central southern Norway. “The sword was found in very good condition. It is very special to get into a sword that is merely lacking its grip,” archaeologist Jostein Aksdal told The Local, Norway. He added that the sword probably dates to between A.D. 750 and 800, and is of a type that was common in western Norway. “When the snow has gone in spring, we will check the place where the sword was found. If we find several objects, or a tomb, perhaps we can find the story behind the sword,” he added. To read about another recently discovered Viking weapon, go to "Artifact: Viking Sword."
Floors from 18th-C. Mansion Unearthed in England
NOTTINGHAMSHIRE, ENGLAND—Traces of the oldest part of Clumber House, the Duke of Newcastle’s eighteenth-century mansion that was destroyed by fire in 1879, have been uncovered at Clumber Park by archaeologists from the National Trust, who are excavating ahead of the installation of new sewers and drains. Flooring made of cut stone with a cast iron grill around the perimeter that covered a heating pipe was found, along with a system of cellars that was used to store beer and wine. “The floors are in a fabulous condition and really do look as though they were only laid yesterday,” archaeologist Rachael Hall told Culture 24. After the 1879 fire, the house was rebuilt, then demolished in 1938 after another fire, World War I, and the Great Depression took their toll. “It was completely levelled, with the exception of the Duke’s Study which is the only surviving remnant of Clumber House and is now used as a dining area within the Clumber restaurant. The stables and estate yard buildings all still survive,” Hall added. To read in-depth about another excavation in England, go to "The Scientist's Garden."
Medusa Sculpture Unearthed in Turkey
LINCOLN, NEBRASKA—A sculpture of Medusa’s head has been unearthed in southern Turkey at the first-century Roman site of Antiochia ad Cragum. The marble carving was part of a pediment that may have stood in an ancient temple that was smashed during the Christian era. “These things were meant to be destroyed and put into a lime kiln to be burned and turned into mortar,” excavation director Michael Hoff of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln told Live Science. The recovered fragments of the pediment were reassembled using 3-D photogrammetry techniques. The excavation team has also found the remains of a bouleuterion, or city council house that may have also served as a theater; colonnaded streets; shops; and a poolside mosaic at the site. To read about mosaics unearthed in Turkey dating to this period, go to "Zeugma After the Flood."
Where Did Dogs Originate?
ITHACA, NEW YORK—A genetic survey conducted by Laura M. Shannon and Adam Boyko of Cornell University and an international team of scientists suggests that the most recent common ancestor of today’s domesticated dogs originated in Central Asia. Previous genetic studies have suggested that dogs originated in the Middle East, in East Asia, and in Europe. This team studied nuclear DNA, DNA from Y-chromosomes, and mitochondrial DNA from 4,676 dogs from 161 breeds, and 549 village dogs—feral dogs that live near human settlements—in 38 countries. “The fact that we looked at so many village dogs from so many different regions, we were able to narrow in on the patterns of diversity in these indigenous dogs,” Boyko told BBC News. He suggests that further research could focus on dog remains from archaeological sites in Central Asia. Even though scholars are divided on where the first dogs were domesticated, they tend to agree that it happened some 15,000 years ago. “There’s no doubt they were hanging around [hunting] camps and becoming gradually more attuned to human life. The question is what was the first step for why that was happening,” Boyko said. To read more about dogs and archaeology, go to "More Than Man's Best Friend."
Unhealthy Levels of Lead Found in Medieval Skeletons
ODENSE, DENMARK—Scientists from the University of Southern Denmark analyzed the levels of lead and mercury in more than 200 skeletons from medieval cemeteries in Denmark and Germany. They found that wealthier people, who usually lived in towns, had higher levels of heavy metals in their bodies. Mercury was used to prepare the color cinnabar, for gilding, and was used as medicine for the treatment syphilis and leprosy, a common ailment. As for lead exposure, the wealthy ate from plates that had been glazed with lead oxide. Salty and acidic foods kept in these glazed pots dissolved the glaze and the lead leaked into the food. Poorer people, often living in the country, were still exposed to lead, but they usually used unglazed pottery. “In the Middle Ages you could almost not avoid ingesting lead, if you were wealthy or living in an urban environment. But what is perhaps more severe, is the fact that exposure to lead leads to lower intelligence of children,” Kaare Lund Rasmussen said in a press release. Exposure to townspeople also came from lead coins, stained-glass windows, and lead tiles on the roofs, since rainwater was often collected for drinking. To read more about medieval bioarchaeology, go to "Vengance on the Vikings."
Blood From Maya Weapons Analyzed
CARBONDALE, ILLINOIS—Live Science reports that human blood was found on two out of the 108 obsidian arrowheads from five Maya sites in the central Petén region of Guatemala studied by Prudence Rice and Nathan Meissner of the Center for Archaeological Investigations at Southern Illinois University. All of the arrowheads date to between A.D. 1400 and 1700. One of the arrowheads with human blood on it came from a temple at the site of Zacpetén, and may have involved the cutting of earlobes, tongues, or genitals. “The general consensus [among scholars] is that bloodletting was ‘feeding’ the gods with the human essential life force,” Rice explained. The second arrowhead with human blood on it came from a house near a fortification wall at Zacpetén. It may have wounded someone before it was removed and discarded. Blood from rodents, birds, rabbits, and large cats was found on more than 20 other arrowheads in the study. To read about the discovery of a Maya king's tomb, go to "Tomb of the Vulture Lord."
Tusk Analysis Supports Mammoth Extinction by Hunting
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN—Daniel Fisher, director of the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, and his graduate students have shown in the past that “life history” information, such as growth rates, age of sexual maturation, and spacing of pregnancies is preserved in fossil mammoth tusks. Now graduate student Michael Cherney has analyzed the isotopic composition of 40,000-year-old to 10,000-year-old tusks from 15 mammoths ranging in age from three to 12 at the time of death in order to determine how old they were when they were weaned from mother's milk. The numbers suggest that the years that a calf nursed decreased by about three years over a span of 30,000 years. In modern elephants, climate change is associated with delayed weaning; pressure from hunting results in earlier weaning age. “This shift to earlier weaning age in the time leading up to woolly mammoth extinction provides compelling evidence of hunting pressure and adds to a growing body of life-history data that are inconsistent with the idea that climate changes drove the extinctions of many large ice-age mammals,” Cherney said in a press release. To read about a recent discovery, go to "Butchered Mammoth Bones Unearthed in Michigan."
Libya’s Pierced Snail Shells are 150,000 Years Old
LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND—Holes in thousands of shells from Haua Fteah Cave in North Africa suggest that early humans used stone drills or thorns to extract snail meat beginning at least 150,000 years ago. “As part of the analysis of archaeological material from the excavation of the Haua Fteah Cave in Libya, tens of thousands of mollusk shells were studied for both palaeoclimate reconstruction and high resolution radiocarbon dating,” Evan Hill, who worked on the project while studying at Queen’s University Belfast, told The Daily Mail. Piercing the shell broke the suction and made it possible to suck the snail from its shell. “Snails seem to have been a very democratic thing for early people to eat, because anyone could gather them,” added Chris Hunt of Liverpool John Moores University. To read about Paleolithic decoration discovered in Africa, go to "In Style in the Stone Age."